Far southeastern Siberia, along the Pacific Coast (Sea of Okhotsk), holds the names which reveal the group, the “remnant” in their terminology, which broke away and was the principal founding group of the Americas, initially settling in southern California and the south of Chile. This story centers on the Torom and Chumikan region, which is located 450 kilometers west of the tip of Sakhalin Island, which lies just north of Japan. Torom and Chumikan also are about 4,500 kilometers from Taiwan, whose fate they are tied to by this story. Chumikan is roughly on the same latitude as Moscow, but about 7,000 kilometers east.
Like the ancestors on Taiwan, the ancestors around Torom and Chumikan spoke Mi, the ancient human language, common going back to Africa. Most of the relevant place names are the plentiful rivers in this region. The place names can be categorized in four groups:
- Those recalling the migration out of Africa approximately 65000 BCE and the move from Yemen, it would seem, to eastern Siberia
- Those describing gaining the capability to sail in the ocean and control the water
- The rise to power of a repressive series of rulers
- The break-away of a group of sailors to gain freedom from the repressive rulers.
The major river of southeastern Siberian that drains into the Pacific at Chumikan is the Maya River. During the last few kilometers at the mouth it is called the Uda. Uda is uh ta’ in Mi or “remnant of the sacred (shaman).” This seems to be a reference to the small group of humans who crossed the Red Sea at Djibouti into Yemen 65,000 years ago, characterized by the genetic haplogroup m mtDNA. There are several references that this group included the shaman of the time, as opposed to the group that followed the Nile River out of Africa (n mtDNA). Among these references are Djibouti, chi bo uh ti, “shaman at the opening of the large hole (Red Sea joining the Indian Ocean).”
The name Maya is mah yah and means “pain from the badness,” using language that matches that of Ethiopia and parts of Kenya. It is a reference to the pain that people ran from in the Great Lakes of Africa region as they left Africa 65,000 years ago. The name Maya River, of course, was carried over into the Americas among one of the most important remnants of the shaman, the Maya. The alternate spelling “Mayan” also has meaning: ma ya an is “run from the pain of the badness.”
Two other names describe some of the region’s geography and people. Lake Bokon is a small lake 70 kilometers southwest of Chumikan. The name Bokon has two meanings, both based on bo ok’ k’o on. One translation is “hole of the ancestors who broke away from the blades,” referring to those who left the cutting (circumcising) blades of Africa. A second translation is “hole split open by the teeth of the previous era (glaciers),” describing how the lake was formed.
The town of Nelkan, Russia, is located 420 kilometers north of Chumikan. The name describes a distinct group of people. It is neh hel ka an and means “similar ones runners of the tail at the beginning.” “Similar ones” was one way of describing a different ethnicity. “Runners of the tail” was language often used to describe those who left Africa by following the Nile River (n mtDNA group according to genetics).
Remembering the ancestors who escaped out of Africa to Yemen
At least 11 place names recall those who migrated out of Africa about 65,000 years ago. These are probably the first among the names to be named. Perhaps the most important of these names is the Dzhana River. In Mi it is ta’ tza an nap, meaning “remnant of those who forgot the lake runners” or, more directly, ta' Sana - “remnant from Sana’a.” This suggests that the southeast Siberia remnant came directly Sana’a, Yemen, to Siberia. Sana’a itself means “forget the runners at the shining (lake),” referring to the runners at the Great Lakes whose repressive measures led to the migration of groups out of Africa (as well as to West Africa). This makes it likely that the southeast Siberia remnant arrived there not too long after their ancestors had left Africa, i.e. did not go to Iran, India, or other places that portions of the m mtDNA group went to.
The Elgondzha and Kurun Uryak Rivers describe the repression at the Great Lakes of Africa. Kurun Uryak is k’ur un ur ya ak’ and means “explain the pain in the skin of the penis/vagina to the youth.” In Ch’orti’ Mi, k’ur can mean either penis or vagina. This name seems explicitly to be referring to both male and female circumcision (female genital mutilation). This is collaborated by similar names, especially in West Africa. It also makes it clear that the story of the repression and pain from the Great Lakes of Africa was passed on to new generations. The Maya practice of bloodletting from the penis could be a way to remember those ancestors who were circumcised against their will in Africa. In a similar way, the name Kovakh describes forced circumcision. In is k’o ba ak’ and means “blades on the skin of the body.” This terminology – “blades on the skin of the body” shows up among all the groups who fled from the Kenya region at the time – not just those who crossed the Red Sea but also those who fled up the Nile and those who fled to West Africa. It is this consistency which is the strongest clue that these names refer to the migration out of Africa.
Elgondzha is hel k’o on ta tz’a or “similar to the teeth (blades) from the lake of the ancestor remnant.” This name seems to have been named by the dissident group that included those who broke away for the Americas. It mentions the blades that the ancestors in Africa had to endure but then compares it to their present repression, a theme to be repeated in other names.
Two names describe breaking away from the repression at the great lakes of Africa. Chogdon is cho ok’ to on and means “esteemed ancestors split away from the sacrifices.” While this could refer to those who left the area for the Americas, the use of “ancestors” makes it likely to refer to those who left Africa. Gasandzha is k’as an tz’a and means “breaking off from the runners at the shiny.” The expression “runners at the shiny (lakes)” is used frequently to describe the first modern humans in Africa. In fact it is the name of the San who had earlier fled for Botswana. Gasandzha is constructed in such a way that there is no possible alternative meaning.
Five names of rivers in southeastern Siberia describe the crossing of the Red Sea on the way from Africa to Yemen: Tyubetinka, Tutkandya, Tutkanchan, Mogocha, and Tylyakachan. Tyubetinka is ti uh bet ti in ka and means “opening for the first sacred ones in the pouring (tides) at the opening at the beginning.” This name describes a beginning event involving the first sacred ones – i.e. shaman. Bet – “pouring” – is a phrase which commonly referred to tides. The name - "opening in the pouring" - could describe a lessening of the waves as the first shaman crossed the Red Sea at the place it opens to the Indian Ocean.
The next three names describe two persons who died on the rafts that crossed the Red Sea. Tutkandya is tu ut ka an ti ha and means “corpses in the water current opening at the beginning.” Tutkanchan is tu ut ka an cha an and means “two corpses while running the opening of the water current at the beginning.” Mogocha is mo ok’ k’o och cha and means “two trapped and split open on the teeth at the entrance.” Mogocha describes more specifically what happened to the two who died in the Red Sea. The syllable och or “entrance” in Mogocha describes more specifically where in the Red Sea the shaman crossed. Finally, Tylyakachan is ti il ya ka cha an and means “pain for the two seen in the current at the opening at the beginning.”
Learning to sail and controlling the coast
Several names indicate that the ancient people at the Sea of Okhotsk coast at Chumikan learned how to sail in the sea. Elkagan River is hel ka ak’ an and means “similar to the coverings (rafts) on the current at the beginning,” seeming to refer to the rafts used to cross the Red Sea in about 65000 BCE. The Ikee River is ik’ k’er and means “gashing the wind,” which may be an expression for sailing.
Without a doubt learning to sail came at the cost of failure and submersion in the sea. The name Nemerikan River describes the failure that came with learning to sail. It is neh em mer ri ik’ k’a an and means “tail (river) beside those who descended due to failure of satisfactory wind on the current.” The lack of wind was perhaps a bigger problem than too much wind. Linguistically it is hard not to see “Nemerikan” as the precursor to “American,” a name likely given by these same people on the sailing trip from Asia to the Americas in about 12800 BCE. Like Nemerikan, American refers to sailing.
The first ones to sail taught more how to sail. The Ulgirikan River is ul k’i ir ri ik’ an and means “dear one explains how to see satisfactory wind beside on the current.” Nemerikan describes the problem of slack winds while Ulgirikan describes to how to spot the signs of slack wind in order to avoid it. Similarly, the Pargaul River is par k’a ul and means “explain the satisfying lattice (rafts).”
The Sonki River is so on ki and means “dear ancestors on the curves (sails),” probably named at some later date commemorating the first sailors. At the same time Sonki may be paying homage to the first ancestors who left the Great Lakes 65,000 years ago. It could also mean “dear ancestors from the curve (Lake Victoria).” “Curve” is used to describe Lake Victoria elsewhere.
The sailors gained proficiency. Tyl River is ti il and means “see the opening.” While this is somewhat vague, one possible meaning is that when the Okhotsk sailors gained the ability to sail greater distances they saw the opening of the Bay of Okhotsk into the Pacific Ocean. The name Dzhegdak is somewhat awkward, indicating it was meant to share two meanings. The first meaning is a clear reference to the ancestors who left Africa 65,000 years ago. It is tze ek’ ta’ ak’ and means “star remnant from the skin by the upright.” Each of these four words were key words in describing the migration out of Africa. Star remnant refers to the group of leaders who were discerning meaning in the stars in Africa. The name Ik’ – Sky – comes from this time period. The upright were the tall ones in Africa who forcibly cut the skin – circumcised. But Dzhegdak also has a meaning related to sailing: “remnant under stars with upright covering,” where upright covering refers to the sail on the sail raft. It indicates that they mastered sailing at night time.
Chumikan, today the principal town on this portion of Okhutsk Sea, describes the power that came with the ability to sail the ocean. Chumikan was likely the center of power in ancient days. Chumikan is chu mi ik’ ka an and means “beginning of guardians of the cats by wind current.”
Repression of the controller
Several river names in the broader Chumikan area indicate that a repressive ruler came to power, most likely basing their power on the newfound ability to sail the seas. The name Chumikan indicates that it was the seat of power. The Barbash River is ba ar bas and means “the time of the bound bodies.” It has a double meaning of “boats,” linking the bound bodies to the time of the boats in the sea. Chagidak is chak’ k’i ta ak’ and means “red-skin remains of the dear ones,” describing the bloody remains of those who were killed. Double meanings are “two” and “dry” indicating that two people were killed, on land. The use of chak’ (red) might link the killings to the planet Mars.
The Yasmal River is ya as ma al, meaning “the time of pain from the practices of the bad ones.” Yasmal has two double meanings: “crush (ya’tz’),” indicating the method of killing, and “sea,” linking the killing to those who controlled the sea. To the west of Chumikan is the Tupik River. Tupik is tu pi ik’, meaning “corpse of the wind companion,” indicating the death of a sailing companion. Ik’ is also a throwback to the leader who was slain back in Africa prior to the migration across the Red Sea about 65,000 years ago.
The Malyy Nyuman River is ma al li ni uh ma an and means “the time of being beside the bad one, the sacred ones (shaman) run to the hills from the bad.” A double meaning here is “knobs in the sea”: this name seems to reference the group that left to go to the islands in the sea – in fact, to the Americas. The Chumavra River is chu ma ab ra in Mi and means “tired of the swinging of the bad guardian.” This name, by ending with “ra”, borrows language from the out of Africa migration – “tired of the …” – to link the migration of those who would become the (main) Native American founders to the migration of their ancestors from Africa to Asia.
Escape to the Americas
Torom is the second largest town in the region, about 40 kilometers southeast of Chumikan. Its name suggests that it was the center of the dissidents who left for the Americas. Torom is toh or ro’ om and means “free from the sacrifices of the leaders at the foam (ocean),” indicating that the name likely comes from the time that the sail rafts left for the Americas. In contrast is the name Aldan, far away from Torom, on the other side of Chumikan. It may have been named by people more sympathetic to the Chumikan rulers but still references those who left. It is al ta an and means, “time of the remnant of runners.”
The river names Taykan and Algykan, south of Torom, both talk about the portion, a remnant, leaving by sail boat. In both cases the names recall the African leader, Ik’, whose death inspired the migration out of Africa about 65,000 years ago. Taykan is ta’ ik’ ka an and means “beginning of the remnant in the wind on the current.” “Wind on the current” seems like a very clear reference to sailing. The same set of four syllables has a double meaning of “remnant of Ik’ running at the beginning,” referring to the African leader Ik’. Algykan is al k’i ik’ ka an in Mi, or “time of the beginning of the dear ones on the wind in the current” – almost identical to Taykan. It also has a double meaning, “the time of the dear one Ik’ running at the beginning,” also referring to their dear ancestor Ik’.
The name of the river Malaya Chumanyara summarizes well why the remnant group left. The two parts of the name can be translated separated: ma al la ya or “the time of being tired of the pain from the bad ones.” This name borrows from the language of the retreat out of Africa, culturally linking the move out of Africa to the move to the Americas. Malaya also recalls the Maya River to the west, which was later to give its name to the Maya people. Chumanyara is chu ma an ya ar ra in Mi and means “time of running from being tired of the pain from the bad guardians.” Bad guardians refers to the bad rulers – those based at Chumikan, which is referenced in the name. The name Chumanyara carries a riddle – because they are tired (of the pain) they run, rather than being tired from running.
A number of names clearly place the break-away group or remnant on the water of Okhotsk Bay and, therefore, the Pacific Ocean. Utannak River is uh ta an ak’, meaning “remnant of the sacred on the covering(s) in the current.” I believe that “covering” refers to rafts although it is not clear. Utannak also borrows from language used by those migrating out of Africa by way of the Red Sea and Yemen. The Ambardak River is am bar ta ak’ in Mi and means “the remnant spidering on the lattice (raft) with covering.” Spidering is an example of how Mi syllables can be a noun or verb. In this case spidering is any traveling that involves the arms, such as canoeing or sailing. The use of am in this names leaves little doubt that the escaping remnant took sail rafts. The lattice with a covering seems to describe a raft with a shade support and sail. Bar is used elsewhere among very early names as the primary word for “boat” or “raft”.
The Sokhatyy River, to the west, is also a Mi name. It is so ok’ k’at ti, meaning “broke away crossing the opening on the arches (sails).” The opening would seem to be the Okhotsk Bay, while arches (so) was a common phrase for “sails” in South America. The Gatkan River is a simple name for the journey of the remnant. It is k’at kah an and means “beginning of crossing the current.”
The Ulirindya River, with its peculiar construction, is a key name, describing how the people on the Okhotsk Bay had found another group of people along the coast. The Ulirindya River is ul li ir in nat ya in Mi and means “explain seeing distant first ones in pain beside.” The name also says that the ones they found were suffering in pain like they were – suffering from a bad guardian. This is consistent with the story from place names on Taiwan. The Ulirindya would have been named prior to the departure of the Torom remnant but it provides the possibility that the people at Torom were familiar with Taiwan, providing the basis for the Torom remnant to detour to Taiwan before making the turn back north along Japan and then to the Aleutian islands.
Why would the escaping Torom remnant have wanted to go to Taiwan before trying to reach a new place further northeast? I can think of only one reason: the Torom remnant left in a hurry and could not take a sufficient number of women. Perhaps taking additional Torom women would have put the whole escape at risk. So a decision was made to grab several more women from Taiwan, the only other occupied place they knew about along the Pacific coast. The meaning of the names along the Amis coast of Taiwan speak about leaders/men coming by sail craft and taking Amis persons with them. The genetics of Native people in the Americas show the presence of females from Taiwan or Southeast Asia (B mtDNA), but no male genes from that region. In fact, there is no other convincing way to explain that the B mtDNA genes made it to the Americas. Even today there is only a minute presence of this haplogroup in Siberia and northeast Asia.
After the Torom remnant left, those who stayed went to search for them. Likely the ones searching were part of the ruling group at Chumikan. The Malyy Dzagdagin River is mal li ti sak’ ta’ chi in and means “searching for remnant of first ones in the large opening of the sea.” There are two double meanings in this name: “bad” and “turtle”. “Bad” seems to be a recognition of the Chumikan leaders that it was their badness which caused the remnant to leave. “Turtle” could be a reference to viewing the earth as a turtle and the remnant moving along the edge of the turtle in their sail rafts. Similarly, the Gassakan River is k’as sak’ an, meaning “search for those who broke away and ran.”
Finally, the name of the Sea of Okhotsk itself provides evidence of a search for the runaway remnant. Okhotsk is ok’ k’ot sak’ in Mi and means “search for the arrival point of the splitters (break-aways).” Given that the name of the sea is Okhotsk, it seems plausible that the extent of the Sea of Okhotsk was the range of the search party.
From Taiwan, the combined Siberian-Taiwanese group likely went along Japan and then the islands to Kamchatka peninsula. On the east side of Kamchatka they may have found the Aleutian Islands to Alaska and from there the coast of North America. One group stayed in California at the Channel Islands while the primary group went on to southern Chile where they became the primary origin group for most of the indigenous in the Americas.